Small Angle Scattering Bibliography


The following references do not attempt to be a comprehensive list for every possible application of SAS, rather they are a collection of general articles, reviews and reference works that SAS practitioners (beginning and established!) may find useful. Suggestions for additional entries are welcome, particularly since several of these references are a little dated now! Please send your suggestions to When doing so, please format your additions in a similar manner to those below before submission, and if possible include some 'guidance text' to help other visitors.


Unpublished Documents


Journal Papers

 Fibre Diffraction Review (previously The CCP13 Newsletter, discontinued. ISSN 1463-8401)

Proceedings of the International Conferences on Small-Angle Scattering





Introduction to Small-Angle Neutron Scattering. King, S.M. ISIS (1995)  -  Web Article

Probing Nanoscale Structures: The SANS Toolbox. Hammouda, B. NIST (2008)  -  PDF

ILL Computing Guide for SANS. Ghosh, R.E. Egelhaaf, S.U. & Rennie, A.R. (2012)  -  PDF



X-ray Scattering

Small Angle Scattering of X-rays. Guinier, A. & Fournet, G. John Wiley. (1955).  -  {A very comprehensive text with 506 references; an authorised facsimile became available from University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor (1981)}

Small Angle X-ray Scattering. Glatter, O. & Kratky, O. (editors). Academic Press. (1982).  -  {Divided into methodology and applications with many chapters and references in each section. Graduate level onwards}

Structure analysis by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering. Feigin, L.A. & Svergun, D.I. Plenum Press. New York. 335 pp. (1987)  -  PDF


Neutron Scattering

Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering. Marshall, W. & Lovesey, S.W. Clarendon Press. Oxford. (1971).  -  {A little dated now}

Chemical Applications of Neutron Scattering. Willis, B.J.M. Oxford University Press. Oxford. (1973).  -  {reprinted}

Introduction to the Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering. G.L. Squires, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1978). Re-issued by Dover.

Neutron Scattering. Kostorz, G. in Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15. Kostorz, G. (editor). Academic Press. (1982).  -  {This text was why Glatter & Kratky did not expand their book on SAXS to encompass SANS}

The Theory of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter. Lovesey, S.W. Volumes 1 & 2. Oxford University Press. (1984).  -  {Definitive and comprehensive texts on the theory of neutron scattering}

Neutron Scattering. Parts A, B & C.Skold, K. & Price, D.L. (editors). In Methods in Experimental Physics. Celotta, R. (editor-in-chief). Academic Press. (1986).

Elementary Scattering Theory: For X-ray and Neutron Users. D.S. Sivia, Oxford University Press (2011).

Structure analysis by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering. Feigin, L.A. & Svergun, D.I. Plenum Press. New York. 335 pp. (1987)  -  PDF

Neutron Scattering at a Pulsed Source. Newport, R.J., Rainford, B.D. & Cywinski, R. (editors). Adam Hilger. (1988).  -  {The lectures from The Summer School on Neutron Scattering at a Pulsed Source, held at Mansfield College Oxford and ISIS, UK, 1986}

Neutron Optics. V.F. Sears, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1989).

P. Schmidt in Modern Aspects of Small-Angle Scattering (ed H. Brumberger). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1995).  -  {Fundamental concepts}


Experimental Considerations

Notes on the Analysis of Cold Neutron Scattering Data. S.J. Cocking, A.E.R.E. M1928 (ed. G.D. Wignall), H.M.S.O., London (1967).  -  {Vanadium absorption corrections}

Diffusion aux petits angles. J.P. Cotton, R. Ober & M. Roth, Lecture Notes, Saclay (1974).  -  available at Laboratoire Léon Brillouin.  -  {Data treatment, resolution etc.}

Thermal-neutron Scattering Lengths and Cross-sections for Condensed Matter Research. V.F. Sears. Report AECL-8490, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario (1984).

J.P. Cotton in Neutron, X-ray and Light Scattering (eds. Lindner & Zemb). North Holland, Amsterdam (1991).  -  {Initial data treatment, H20/D2O contrast}

C.E. Williams in Neutron, X-ray and Light Scattering (eds. Lindner & Zemb). North Holland, Amsterdam (1991).  -  {Contrast variation}

A.D. Sequeira, J.S. Pedersen and G. Kostorz in Modern Aspects of Small-Angle Scattering (ed. H. Brumberger). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1995).  -  {Comparison of cross-calibration using water and vanadium}


Data Treatment

O. Glatter in Small Angle X-ray Scattering (eds. Glatter & Kratky. Academic Press, London (1982).  -  {Analysis using transform techniques}

R.P. May in Modern Aspects of Small-Angle Scattering (ed H. Brumberger). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1995).  -  {Analysis using transform techniques}

G. Porod in Small angle X-ray Scattering (eds. Glatter & Kratky). Academic Press, London (1982).  –{Porod approximation}


Studying Biomolecules

X-ray and Neutron Solution Scattering. Perkins, S.J. In Modern Physical Methods in Biochemistry, Part B. Chapter 6. Elsevier. (1988).  -  {A comprehensive article with much useful data.}

High Flux X-ray and Neutron Solution Scattering. Perkins, S.J. In Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 22. Jones, C., Mulloy, B. & Thomas, A.H. (editors). Humana Press. (1994).  -  {A short introductory article on what SAXS and SANS can do for molecular biologists. Includes practical tips!}

Structural Investigations of Protein–Lipid Complexes Using Neutron Scattering. Clifton, L.A. et al. Chapter 11 in Lipid-Protein Interactions: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 2003, Kleinschmidt, J.H. (editor). Springer Nature. (2019). - {Covers SANS and NR}


Studying Colloids

Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Ottewill, R.H. In Colloidal Dispersions. Goodwin, J.W. (editor). Special Publication No. 43. Royal Society of Chemistry. (1982).  -  {A short, eminently readable, introductory account of how SANS may be used to study colloidal dispersions. Also see the later chapter on concentrated dispersions by the same author.}

Foundations in Colloid Science. Hunter, R.J. Volume 2. Clarendon Press. (1989).

Neutron, X-ray and Light Scattering. Lindner, P. & Zemb, Th. (editors). Holland. (1991).  -  {Proceedings of the European Workshop on Neutron, X-ray and Light Scattering as an Investigative Tool in Colloidal and Polymeric Systems, held in Bombannes, France, 1990}

Using SANS to Study Adsorbed Layers in Colloidal Dispersions. King, S.M., Griffiths, P.C. & Cosgrove, T. In Applications of Neutron Scattering to Soft Condensed Matter. Chapter 4. Gabrys, B.J. (editor). Gordon & Breach. (2000).


Studying Polymers

Polymers and Neutron Scattering. Higgins, J.S. & Benoit, H.C. Oxford Series on Neutron Scattering in Condensed Matter, Volume 8. Clarendon Press. (1994).  -  {A comprehensive text covering all aspects of neutron scattering from polymers. Highly recommended}

Introduction to Polymer Physics. M. Doi, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1995).

Small-angle Neutron Scattering. King, S.M. In Modern Techniques for Polymer Characterisation. Chapter 7. Pethrick, R.A. & Dawkins, J.V. (editors). Wiley. (1999).  -  {A 'how to' guide to conducting and analysing SANS experiments on polymeric systems, but which is sufficiently generic for more widespread application. Highly recommended}


Studying Metals

G. Kostorz in Physical Metallurgy (eds. R.W.Cahn & P.Haasen). North Holland, Amsterdam (1996).  -  {Metallurgical studies using SAS}




C.M. Jeffries, J. Ilavsky, A. Martel, et al. Nat Rev Methods Primers 1, 70 (2021). - {View online here}

C.J. Gommes, S. Jaksch, H. Frielinghaus. J Appl Cryst 54, (2021). - {View online here}


Experimental Considerations

J. Schelten & W. Schmatz, J. Appl. Cryst. 13, 385-390 (1980).  -  {Multiple scattering effects in SANS experiments}

R.E. Ghosh & A.R. Rennie, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 107 233-244 (1990).  -  {Assessment of inelastic scattering effects in SANS experiments}

T.C. Huang, H. Toraya, T.N. Blanton & Y. Wu, J. Appl. Cryst. 26 180-184 (1993).  -  {Use of silver behenate as a low-angle diffraction standard}

R.E. Ghosh & Adrian R. Rennie, J. Appl. Cryst. 32 1157-1163 (1999).  -  {Assessment of detector calibration materials for SANS experiments}

A. Brûlet, D. Lairez, A. Lapp & J.P. Cotton, J. Appl. Cryst. 40 165-177 (2007).  -  {Improvement of data treatment in small angle experiments; includes treatment for scattering angles beyond 10°, and considers background effects carefully}


Data Treatment

G.D. Wignall, F.S. Bates, J. Appl. Cryst. 20 28 (1987).  -  {Absolute calibration of SANS data}

T.P. Russell, J.S. Lin, S. Spooner, & G.D. Wignall, J. Appl. Cryst. 21, 629-638 (1988).  -  {Inter- and absolute calibration of SAXS and SANS data}

F. Horkay, A-M Hecht, S. Mallam, E. Geissler & A.R. Rennie, Macromolecules 24 2896-2902 (1991).  -  {Procedures for subtracting incoherent background scattering}

R. Hori, H. Suzuki, T. Kamiyama, & J. Sugiyama, J. Mat. Sci. Lett. 22, 963-966 (2003). - {Application of multivariate principal component analysis to SAXS-derived microfibril angle data}

S.R. Kline, J. Appl. Cryst. 39 895-900 (2006).  -  {Reduction and analysis of SANS and USANS using IGOR Pro}

B.R. Pauw, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25, 383201 (2013). - {Review of the steps involved in data collection and data correction (with particular focus on SAXS)}

P.V. Konarev & D.I. Svergun, IUCrJ 2(3), 352-360 (2015). - {A posteriori determination of the useful data range for small-angle scattering experiments on dilute monodisperse systems}


Studying Colloids

J.B. Hayter & J. Penfold, Colloid and Polymer Science 261, 1022-1030 (1983).  -  {Calculation and measurements of micellar systems; product approximation for convolution}

J.S. Pedersen, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 70 171-210 (1997).  -  {Analysis of SAS data from colloids and polymer solutions; how to model and fit data, together with a very useful catalogue of form factors and structure factors}


Studying Biomolecules

B. Jacrot & G. Zaccai, Biopolymers 20, 2413-2426 (1981).  -  {Determination of molecular weights by SANS}

R. Ullman, Journal of Polymer Science, Polymer Letters Edition, 21, 521-526 (1983).  -  {Deals with corrections to Rg when measurements are outside the optimum range for QRg}

R. Ullman, Journal of Polymer Science, Polymer Physics Edition, 23 1477-1488 (1985).  -  {Describes corrections to Rg for polydispersity for several distributions}

C.M. Jefferies, Z. Pietras, & D.I. Svergun. EPJ Web of Conferences, 236, 03001 (2020). - {The basics of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS for new users of structural biology)}

F. Zhang et alPharmaceutics, 14, 69, (2022). - {SAXS-based screening protocol for studying the stability of protein formulations; view online here; includes supplementary ZIP file with analysis template and automation script}


Studying Polymers

Recent Developments in Polymer Applications of Small Angle Neutron, X‑ray and Light Scattering. Higgins, J.S. & Stein, R.S. J. Appl. Cryst. 11, 346 (1978).  -  {A little dated now, but still a useful review with 272 references}

Neutron Scattering and Amorphous Polymers. Maconnachie, A. & Richards, R.W. Polymer 19, 739 (1978).  -  {Also a little dated now, but nonetheless a useful review of how different neutron scattering techniques can be used to investigate the structure and dynamics of polymers in the bulk. Approximately half of the article is devoted to scattering theory, instrumentation and experimental techniques. 116 references}

Small Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Polymers: Selected Aspects. Richards, R.W. J. Macromol. Sci. - Chem. A26, 787 (1989).  -  {A readable overview of the application of SANS to the study of multiphase polymer systems - unfortunately let down by some typographical errors}

Looking at Polymers with Neutrons. Arrighi, V., Fernandez, M.L. & Higgins, J.S. Sci. Prog. 77, 71 (1993/94).  -  {A short introductory article on how neutron scattering can be used to study the structure and dynamics of polymers in solution and in the melt. Suitable for graduates}


Studying Food

Neutron techniques for food hydrocolloidsGilbert, E.P. Cur. Opin. in Coll. Int. Sci. 67, 101730 (2023).  -  {SANS and beyond with 76 references}


Studying Magnetism

Magnetic small-angle neutron scattering of bulk ferromagnets. Michels, A. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 383201 (2014). - {Review article}

Magnetic small-angle neutron scattering. Mühlbauer, S., Honecker, D., Périgo, É. A., Bergner, F., Disch, S., Heinemann, A., Erokhin, S., Berkov, D., Leighton, C., Eskildsen, M. R. & Michels, A. Reviews of Modern Physics. 91, (2019) -  {Review article}

Using small-angle scattering to guide functional magnetic nanoparticle design. Honecker, D., Bersweiler, M.,  Erokhin, S., Berkov, D., Chesnel, K., Alba Venero, D., Qdemat, A., Disch, S., Jochum, J., Michels, A., Bender, P. Nanoscale Adv. (2022) - {Review Article}